Growth hormone or growth hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. It refers to a family of polypeptide
hormones. Prolactin and placental lactogen are also members of this family.
Growth Hormone - its genes and isoforms
Growth hormone has five genes which are adjacent loci 17th chromosome homology these .Enclosure
gene is quite large. Two of these genes are two basic isoforms of the growth hormone. Synthesis of one of these
It occurs in the pituitary, the second synthesized in placental syncytiotrophoblast cells. The number is increasing at the expense of isoforms
alternative splicing, which is responsible for their effects on various tissues. Our blood contains 5 to 8 isoforms.
The main isoform comprises more than 190 amino acids and has a molecular weight of at least 22120 Da.
As growth hormone influences our tissues and organs
Growth hormone called growth hormone due to the fact that it accelerates growth in length in adolescents and children by growth in
the extremities of the long bones. Growth Hormone Growth hormone is a powerful anabolic and anti-catabolic.
It increases protein synthesis and prevent its disintegration. Inventories decreased subcutaneous fat due to growth hormone.
There is a fat burning. Muscle mass increases with respect to fat mass. Growth hormone directly regulates
carbohydrate metabolism due to the fact that increases in blood glucose. He is the representative of hormones that
affect carbohydrate metabolism as an insulin antagonist. Known effect of growth hormone on the pancreas, specifically
at its islet cells. On stimulates the immune system. Bone tissue will absorb calcium. By itself, the hormone
growth has many effects, but most of them is due to the fact that there are
insulin-like growth factors. For example somatomedin C or IGF-1. Growth hormone affects the liver, where it is produced.
Thus there is the growth of many internal organs. Target tissues synthesize additional Insulin-like growth
or factor IGF-1.
The mechanism of action of growth hormone receptor
A transmembrane receptor protein is growth hormone, which belongs to a large group of receptors having
tyrosine kinase activity. Many scientists say that using the hormone molecules combine two molecules
.This process is called receptor dimerization. After that there is activation of the receptor and the intracellular domain
phosphorylates a receptor system itself, and the base target protein known as Janus kinase or JAK-2. later
signal is transmitted in different ways. Janus kinase-STAT proteins by leads to active transcription
Some genes. Through the insulin receptor substrate (IRS protein) there is an influence on the movement of glucose to the cells.
JAK-2 sometimes activate other receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor. Because of this, it is possible, at the growth hormone exists mitogenic effect.